Should There be a New Sphere of War, the Human Sphere?

first_imgBy U.S. Army Captain, Special Forces, Thomas Doherty July 26, 2016 Until recently, the sphere of war has been based on elements such as land, sea and air. Recently, the U.S. Armed Forces have added the sphere of cyberspace and have linked it to the other spheres of war. In doing so, the Armed Forces have created a whole new command dedicated to this sphere of war under a basic understanding that the conventional military units within the Army, Navy or Air Force will include it, since it is not assumed that they dominate that sphere. Adding this sphere raises the question: what do we do when the human sphere or terrain is the key, and control over it represents the decisive aspect or point? Should there be a human sphere of war? On whom does it fall to propose a human sphere for waging war? In analyzing the capabilities of the Armed Forces, the United States military has recognized the growing importance of cyberspace; thus, in 2005, they converted it to a sphere of war along with the classical elements of land, sea and air. The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have also demonstrated the importance of the human sphere of war. In these campaigns, the control of the elements based on classical spheres signified little if anything beyond the tactical sphere. Some analysts surmise that in Afghanistan, “We failed by not denying the enemy the most important factor in any insurgency: the human sphere. The key terrain is sometimes mentioned in a non-doctrinal way as the ‘decisive terrain.'” The elemental spheres for waging war are based on terrains which must be dominated in order to be successful. There are certain abstract forms of key terrain that transcend basic elemental functions. Among them is cyberspace, where sending and receiving electronic signals can drastically affect outcomes and can even cause physical damage. A human sphere for waging war (HSfWW) does not imply the restoration of human terrain systems (HTS). Any similarity ends with the names. HTS was assumed to be a function of intelligence gathering, while HSfWW refers to the decisive point of a campaign in operational or strategic terms. Gathering intelligence in the human terrain will always have a place in all phases of Unified Land Operations (previously called Full Spectrum Operations). The purpose of the HSfWW is to concentrate on where a war will be waged. In determining the relationship of a supported command and the supporters in the key terrain that define the decisive point, the relationship should be the deciding factor. That key terrain will be in the sphere or space of combat, and the command responsible for the combat sphere should be the supported command. For example, during the Battle of Britain, the Royal Air Force counted on the support of the command and the battle was waged in the air. Another example of this concept is a counterinsurgency (COIN) campaign. Our military forces have already formed a command for this purpose, with an expertise and command structure in place, consisting of the special forces of the 1st Special Forces Command (1st SFC). The special forces of the 1st SFC are under the command of the only Defense Department units specifically trained to carry out COIN campaigns and trained in the nature of insurgency commonly called non-conventional war. During the last decade, half of our counterinsurgency operations were executed under the command predominantly of conventional operations military commanders. That is to say that the experts in the subject were there as command support and there was no supported command. It is almost like designating the air force to be in charge of formulating plans for a ground campaign. It is proposed that the one having the greatest capability for materializing the campaign plan over the decisive point should be the Decisive Operation, and therefore, by doctrine, the supported and empowered commander. In establishing the human sphere as a combat sphere, there will be a clearly delineated command with responsibilities over that sphere of war. Likewise, as no one questions the leadership and command of the Air Force in planning air campaigns, there should be no doubt about leadership in campaigns for the human sphere. The human sphere is not a malleable medium; it is a mobile medium that occupies with other spheres as needed. It is what converts the elemental spheres for waging war into epiphenomenal entities of the human sphere, and as such, they should be treated strategically. Only tactically, terrains such as the top of a mound or hill will retain their main value as key terrain in contrast to the human sphere and physical terrain, which are only important during limited periods. As the level of planning increases, the control of the human sphere will take on greater value, regardless of the other spheres of war that have been occupied. The HSfWW is essentially different from all other spheres of war. To treat it as totally separate from the rest will open news ways to tackle the problem. Also, in creating a primary proponent for this sphere to wage this war, the conditions would be fixed, so that the force with the greatest probability of capturing or defending the sphere for any operation should be the supported command that is unfolding in the HSfWW. This presupposes that it would be necessary to design doctrinal principles and redesigns of force in order to operate according to said principles. However, as mentioned before, the necessity of those principles and redesigns must not only be recognized, rather it is already evident [already present]. What has not been achieved yet is the correct application of using said force, and the doctrinal principles – that is to say, an umbrella command during the conflict, in order to reach the final desired status within the HSfWW. In contrast to other spaces, the human sphere is a mobile medium. This mobility can be used as an advantage for those who seek to control it. Up to a certain point the human sphere can be utilized as a source of camouflage for other parts of the same. The mobility achieved with this camouflage within the human sphere allows the other part[ie]s to deploy forces and exercise influence within other parts of this global sphere. A current example is ISIS and its capability to spread over the whole world by means of massive immigrations of its forces, camouflaged as refugees who enter Europe and other parts of the world. This allows ISIS to scatter spores in the formerly secured human sphere using a strategic mask like Ink Spot. What part of the human sphere is worth the trouble of trying to dominate it? The answer indicated is “The hearts and the minds.” However, this only alludes to a deeper focus that should be achieved: the dominant influence of habits, beliefs and even more importantly, the will of the enemy within the HSfWW which should be forces friendly to us. It is what the opponents try to control or to prevent others from controlling. This requires not only the capacity to fire, mobilize, communicate and provide medical services, but also the capacity to move freely within the human sphere to be dominated. It is from this exposure to the Special Forces Alfa (the Special Forces Operational Detachment Alphas) over a long term basis that the local population can be influenced, and the objectives declared by the combat commander can be achieved. Adoption of a human sphere of combat will allow for a change in the structure of command, and therefore, in strategy. It will overcome institutional inertia and pressure politics, turning the onus for victory toward the units specifically trained to wage war in the area of souls/spirits. Today there is a kind of war in which the “hearts and minds” of people must be won in order to determine who is victorious and who is left defeated. The doctrine and the structure of the force is already in place and therefore there will be no further costs incurred. What is required is a change in the relationship between the one supported and the adherents, as well as in the application of the existing doctrine. Creating a human sphere of combat would concentrate our military forces better, which would give us a greater probability of achieving victory.last_img read more

Philippe Senderos departs Aston Villa by mutual consent

first_img Senderos, who had previously played in England for Arsenal, Everton and Fulham, joined Villa in June 2014 after a spell in Spain with Valencia. But the 30-year-old centre-back played only nine times for Villa with his final appearance coming in a goalless draw at West Ham in November 2014. Switzerland defender Philippe Senderos has left Aston Villa. Press Associationcenter_img “Aston Villa and Philippe Senderos have mutually agreed to terminate the defender’s contract,” said a statement on the official club website. “The club wishes Philippe all the best in his future career.” last_img read more

Large turnout expected at Guyana Cup horse-race meet

first_img– Over 120 horses confirmed to competeBy Rajiv BisnauthOVER 120 top horses from Guyana,the Caribbean and North America, will be in action today when the tenth annual Guyana Cup horse race meet is staged at the Port Mourant Turf Club, Corentyne, Berbice.Thousands are expected to throng the famous venue for the nine-race meet, which is dubbed the biggest and richest horse-race event in Guyana and the Caribbean.This year, a colossal $30 million in cash incentives and trophies are up for the taking.In an invited comment yesterday, secretary of the Port Mourant Turf Club, Chattergoon Ramnauth, disclosed that all systems are in place for the mega event, which is expected to be a pulsating and action -packed day of racing.Ramnauth pointed out that despite the recent rains, the track is in good condition and some fast times are expected to be recorded in the grand showdown.Apart from the foreign contingent of horses to be on show, several leading jockeys from overseas are also expected to participate,which will add that international flavour to the day’s event.A star-studded field will include a full gate of 16 horses breaking-even in the feature ‘A’ and Lower race, where defending champion, ‘CP Got Even’, will definitely start as favourite. Also, the race has a line-up of pure-class horses, with the likes of Score’s Even.Also set to start are Kings Knight, Just Call Me Boss, Princess She Not, Golden Blue Echo, Spit Fire, Plum Plum, Goodwill Boy, Lady Budapest, Climate Change, Blame the Jockey, Jack in My Style, Because I Say So, Bridal Stone Corner, and the newly-imported Brave Sky, out of the USA.A total of $8 million will be up for grabs in that race which will be run over a distance of 1800 metres.The race for three-year-old horses bred in Guyana and The West Indies is listed as the co-feature event over 1600m.Other races listed on the programme are: the race for two-year-old Guyana-bred horses, the ‘E’ and Lower class, the ‘G’1 and Lower class, and West Indies and Guyana open event. There are two ‘H’class events, with the first listed for ‘H’1 and Lower horses,while the second is for’H’ and Lower Guyana- bred horses and ‘H’3 West Indies-bred maiden and three- year non-earners.The ‘J’class event is now for ‘J’2 horses four years and over,and all ‘L’ class winners four years and over,while the ‘L’ and Lower event is now for maiden horses.Admission is $2000 for adults, while children will pay $1000. The race will be run under the rules of the Guyana Horse Racing Authority (GHRA). Race time is 12:30h.Meanwhile, the Berbice Bridge management informed this publication yesterday that the bridge will be closed today to vehicular traffic from 13:30hrs to 15:00hrs.last_img read more

Changing Stance

first_img Paola Foy was getting ready to leave the house when her mother called in a panic.It was Winter Break in 2013, just after Paola’s older brother and Syracuse’s starting right tackle, Ivan, helped the Orange to a 21-17 win over Minnesota in the Texas Bowl.He was sleeping in bed, so Paola woke him up, confused why her mother feared for his future after getting off the phone with SU head coach Scott Shafer. But Ivan knew. He tried explaining to his sister that he’d been suspended from all team activities for failing a class in the fall, but words wouldn’t come out. He stayed in the same spot in bed for six hours, looking up at the ceiling, wondering if he’d ever play football for Syracuse again.“I wanted to die,” Foy’s mother, Ramona Santana said. “When the coach called me and told me that, I wanted to die.”Foy openly talks about his bumps in the road. The immaturity as a freshman third-stringer. The academic struggles that threatened his future at Syracuse. The six-game absence last season because of a right knee injury that deflated his morale.AdvertisementThis is placeholder textThey’ve helped mold the fifth-year senior working to perfect the intricacies of a new position after switching from right tackle to left. It’s a challenge belittled by past obstacles, but one that could validate Foy’s career in the last chance to do so.“I don’t ever want to come off the field and say, ‘Damn, I wish I would’ve had this block and maybe we would’ve scored,’” Foy said. “Nah, I need to get everything done this year.”I JUST WANT TO BE THAT GUY THAT THE O-LINE LEANS ON, LIKE YOU WANT TO RUN IT TO MYSIDE TO HAVE PRESSURE ON ME.”Ivan FoyFoy doesn’t hesitate for a second when admitting that his freshman self was immature.He went through the motions because he felt he wasn’t getting attention. Andrew Tiller, a senior offensive lineman at the time, said Foy cut class and didn’t listen. The way Foy says this year’s freshmen are “so smart and so into things” was absent with him four years ago.“I knew that I wasn’t playing so I kind of laid back and kind of tried to enjoy college freshman year and not so much focus on football,” Foy said.The only reason people were patient was because they knew Foy had intangibles to complement a maturity if it ever developed, Tiller said.But until then, a 6-foot-4, 318-pound redshirt stood on the sideline with untapped potential.Logan Reidsma | Photo EditorWhen Ivan Foy Sr. hung up with Shafer – Foy left it to the head coach to tell his parents – Paola broke down in tears.“Oh my god,” Foy Sr. now says with a chuckle about the moment. “…I don’t even know how to describe it.”Before Foy began his path back, Tiller had a stern message: “It’s not the end of the road yet, but it can be if you don’t get your sh*t together well.”He had to pass all his classes, get above a 2.0 grade point average, stay in shape and then, if he maintained all three, could rejoin the team if Shafer wanted.Foy couldn’t be around the team in Manley Field House during spring ball. He estimates 95 percent of his time is spent with football players, so he felt uncomfortable not having them around. When they were, he wouldn’t talk about football.In the meantime, he watched TV in his room, played video games or shot hoops at Archbold Gymnasium. After being out of his element for an entire semester, he got a call from his advisor in the Falk College, who told Foy he’d met the academic requirements to return.He was lying in the same spot in his bed at home, this time tearing up.**Foy ran down the MetLife Stadium turf against Notre Dame last September, looking to block a safety as the Orange ran an outside zone to the left.“And out of nowhere, pop pop.”Doctors gave him two options: end his season with surgery or rehab on his own and possibly play again. Foy chose the latter and began an eight-week stretch that included 2-3 rehab sessions per day, coaching his teammates from the sideline and somberly walking into the training room.Foy never missed a game in high school due to injury, Fort Hamilton head coach Daniel Perez said. He had trouble coping with being sidelined and Paola said he even pondered culinary school as a backup career path.But he returned Nov. 22 against Pittsburgh and has been at full health since shortly after the season, easing his transition to left tackle. The change in technique is nothing drastic, just doing the opposite footwork and hand maneuvers. The position comes with increased pressure since he’s protecting quarterback Terrel Hunt’s blindside, but Foy prefers it that way.“He’s one of those guys that, if I was to get hit, he would get down on himself,” Hunt said. “He really cares about playing that position.”It’s a different pressure than what Foy has shouldered before and one he marvels at. It’ll make his teammates and coaches trust him, something they haven’t always been able to do.**Foy’s forehead drips with sweat at a post-practice interview, his “man bun” standing vertically on his head secured by a hair tie. He’s dropped 38 pounds since his freshman year and reflects on how the past guides who he’s become.Whenever he’s in Brooklyn, Foy visits Fort Hamilton and preaches to the football team about staying on top of academics. This year he vows to lead strictly by example since he never liked being told what to do.“Ivan’s like a new person, a new player,” center Rob Trudo said.Paola, Foy’s only sibling of five that shares the same two parents, said he used to avoid all conversation with her. Now she feels comfortable going to him for advice in school or at home, and called his maturation mind-blowing.Foy’s transformation off the field has formed a new player on it, and the hurdles he’s jumped have given him a new perspective on the delicacy of a football career.He’s itching to capitalize on this year’s clean slate, which is something he’s several times thought would never come again.“I just want to be that guy that the O-line leans on, like you want to run it to my side to have pressure on me,” Foy said. “…just knowing it’s my last year and I’m going to give it all I’ve got.” Comments Published on September 3, 2015 at 4:22 am Contact Matt: [email protected] | @matt_schneidman Fifth-year senior tackle Foy prepares for position switch after learning from past obstacles This is placeholder text Advertisementcenter_img Facebook Twitter Google+ Cancel replyYou must be logged in to post a comment.last_img read more